The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.

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Most states united to form strong kingdoms for security purposes e.

The publishing website GRIN. The Mfecane was set in motion by the rise of the Zulu military kingdom under Shaka c. The Mfecane led to the development of larger political units such as the Zulu state and the Swazi composite. Defeats in several clashes cauees Mzilikazi to move north towards Swaziland.

She suggests these pressures created internal movements, as well as reactions against European activity, that drove the state ov and concomitant violence and displacement. It created way for European penetration i.

What had caused the Mfecane? – History Forum ~ WorldHistoria

This page was last edited on 16 Novemberat Views Read Edit View history. They also took large numbers of captives north with them, [10] finally settling north of the Zambezi River in Barotselandwhere they conquered the Lozi people.

Mfecane led to the evolution of strong centralized governments I. The Natal Society Foundation 4: What students say about Stuvia.

The Mfecane and Its Effects

Aroundthe Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan defied Zulu king Shaka, and set up his own kingdom. This forced migration was caused by a series of wars that engulfed the area between different states over land and resources. Internet URLs are the best. Fortifying the easily defended hills and expanding his reach with cavalry raids, he fought against his enemies with some success, despite mfeccane adopting the Zulu tactics, as many other clans had done.


The single event that made the most profound effect on Central and Southern Africa in the nineteenth century? Eldredge also asserts that Cobbing downplays the importance of the ivory trade in Delagoa Bay, and the extent to which African groups and leaders sought cauzes establish more centralised and complex state formations to control ivory routes and the wealth associated with the trade.

Zwide defeated the Mthethwa and executed Chief Dingiswayo.

It resulted into increased slave trade as such attacks were used by slave traders to carry out raids for slaves it was common among the N goni. When Zwide attacked Sobhuza it led o the Ngwane moving from their place in the Pongola valley andinto an unknown region where they became invaders and raiders looking for a new homeland where they would eventually build the Swazi composite.

The best study guides. They included the following. Rise of strong personalities who mobilized comrnunities and becameimportant figures in history acuses cast and central Africa i.

Mfecane | African history |

Kingdom of Mapungubwe c. Solidarity in Athol Fugards Township Plays. The Zulus were a weak minority occupying a small piece of land in the area now known as Makhosini near Babanango. This period of revolutionary change–known as the cauzes or crushing–see Glossary by the Zulu and the difaqane see Cuses by the Sotho–is also often referred to as “the time of troubles” see fig.

South African History Online. The Tswana were pillaged by two large invasionary forces set on the move by the Mfecane. This led to many quarrels and then eventually a war broke out between the two chiefdoms in Avoid resits and achieve higher grades with the best study guides, textbook notes, and class notes written by your fellow students. Thoughts on Dithakong and Mbolompo”. During this period, the Matebele left a trail of destruction in their wake. People fought one another for meager supplies of grain and cattle, hunted down whatever game they could find, and sought out any remaining water supplies in a desperate attempt to survive.


Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Conflicts between chiefdoms and their leaders for example Z wide of the Ndwandwe, Sobhuza of the Ngwane and Dingiswayo of the Mthethwa.

As King Shaka created the militaristic Zulu Kingdom in the territory between the Tugela River and Pongola Riverhis forces caused a wave of warfare and disruption to sweep to other peoples. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. This was because the long wars could not permit them.

They were respectively led by kings Sobhuza of NgwaneZwideand Dingiswayo and were the most powerful ethnic groups. Due to untold suffering many people migrated into other parts of South, East and Central Africa resulting into displacement of nations.

What had caused the Mfecane?

Panic, human suffering, the Fengu for instance became cannibals because they lost land, cattle and destruction of settlements We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. Preview 2 out of 10 pages. Shaka created an expansive Zulu state that waged war on neighbouring peoples, causing them to be incorporated into the Zulu state or to flee as refugees. History of Central Africa, volume 1.