Title, Democracia y totalitarismo. Volume of Biblioteca Breve · Biblioteca Breve. Ciencias Humanas · Biblioteca breve (Seix Barral).: Ciencias humanas. Democracia y totalitarismo. Front Cover. Raymond Aron. Seix Barral, – pages Bibliographic information. QR code for Democracia y totalitarismo. Democracia y totalitarismo by Raymond Aron; 1 edition; First published in

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Democracia y totalitarismo

raymnd In any case, politics are more important to Aron than economics, and this will be one of its various objections to Marxism, the dominant creed among French intellectuals from the second half of the 20th century. All are imperfect, but paraphrasing Orwell, we could say some are more imperfect than others. The monopoly is justified since the political party is the only authentic representation, because its objective is totalitarimso construction of a new and more fair society.

During his life, he wrote outstanding economic analysis, but this was not incompatible with his affirmation that it is not always easy to know what economic powers want, although he underlines that it is very simple to affirm that it is a unitary force.

Until which point could it evolve after the de-Stalinization driven by Khrushchev? In this democraxia we could reflect on a Montesquieu quote, transcribed by Aron, who affirms that whenever we see everybody tranquil in a state that calls itself a republic, we can be sure that liberty does not exist there. When revolutionary movements take power, one oligarchy usually replaces other.

Democracia y totalitarismo | Open Library

It was still a fiction because, for them, only the single political party represented the proletariat. On the contrary, he knew how to use his seduction abilities until the point of becoming a dictator like the ones of the Roman Republic, a man lauded by citizens who looked for a savior of France that could put an end to the discredit of the parliamentary republic institutions that existed up to then.


On another level, the author underlines the contrast between communist determinism and the role played by the will of the leaders. Democracy and totalitarianism includes the nineteen lectures Aron taught at the Sorbonne University in totalitzrismo, when France was immersed in the Algerian war and the General De Gaulle was totalitarismk to take power to establish the presidential rule of the French Fifth Republic. Aron also emphasizes the weaknesses of democracies in the foreign policy domain, due to its tendency to question plain facts and their doubts when assuming risks.

Ideology has become a mean to an end. In reaction to the accusations claiming that parties only represent some particular oligarchies, Aron believes them to be necessary for the existence of political pluralism.

In these terms all others are traitors. Aron knew perfectly the man who was going to govern France. The book conclusion is the imperfection of both regimes, democracies and totalitarianism, but it is necessary to distinguish between a regime essentially imperfect and other one evidently imperfect. This is not the case of Raymond Aron, the French political analyst and sociologist who some would want to circumscribe its relevance to the interwar period and the Cold War.

Nevertheless, this could not be used for the transformation of the system because party monopoly, ideological orthodoxy and bureaucratic absolutism continued. It is always worthy wondering if the authors raised to the category of classics are men of their time who could be considered old-fashioned nowadays.

Aron believes in liberal democracy, but distrusts the unanimities and even more the ideologies which aim at building perfect systems.


There is no doubt that by then changes were introduce in the economic aspect and the revolutionary fervor of the Marxist faith seemed to be weakened. The author reviews presidential and parliamentary democracies and compares the European and American political systems.

Here, fanaticism is not incompatible with some scepticism. In this way, as Aron correctly remarks, the Fifth Republic really became the Third Empire, of course a parliamentary and plebiscitary Empire.

Once again, the unconditional unanimities. Soviets had several constitutions that on paper meant a plural regime. Otherwise, which political regime would be free of not being identified as an oligarchy? These are very capable, as Lenin and Stalin showed, of sacrificing doctrine for the relevant action. Raymond Aron studies as well the monopolistic political regimes, particularly the Soviet Union.

As opposed to Nazism and Fascism, which never conceal their hate towards liberal democracy, communist used to make a clear commitment to democracy, even though they never applied it.

De Gaulle did not need to use sedition to bury the Forth Republic. On the other side, Aron does not believe in the usual conspiracy theories, even less in those saying economic powers make use of political puppets, as usual common place. The logical democraica is the identification between State and party.

We will be told that the world has changed and each time it changes more, that there are few certainties and that the thinkers of the past, although this one is recent, are not of great utility.