Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway (GSM-R) is a radio communication system offering a wide range of voice and data services needed for. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways, but the most.

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When a sufficient number of charging records have been accumulated, they gssm sent to a Billing Centre in one bulk via an X. Which of the following combinations best contains the sysrra elements in the GSM network that does not have SS7? Network elements involved in location update Periodic location update is carried out when the network does not receive any location update request from the mobile in a specified time. The final phase is the dimensioning of the fixed network on the basis of the traffic requirements and dimensioning of the entire radio network.

Information is sent in packets along whichever route is available at wystra time. Furthermore, different ways of obtaining information about the network are presented. But when connecting to the MSC, the multiplexed lines have to be de-multiplexed. Moreover, there is a need to create rules for routing, protection, synchronisation and switch management.

Location update procedures Compare this generic location update process with the one presented in section 2. Mobile originated PSTN terminated call. Gateway and switching network connections need to be identified, as well as the synchronisation principles for the network. The other 6 bits are effectively wasted.

systea Distributed processing is the first one. It is a 32 vsm binary number and these TMSI numbers are reallocated in a ciphered format. The alarms are stored in the NMS database and this database can be searched according to criteria specified by the network operator. These functions will be discussed later. The LAP-D message structure is similar to SS7, but it does not support networking capabilities, therefore, it is used for point to point connections.


Let us take an example: This number consists of type approval code, final assembly code and serial number of the mobile station. In the latter case the MSC makes the decision.

There are no recommendations on the end user terminals.

It supports the GSMand frequency bands. Over the years, there has been a vast dystra in signalling technology and the lady operator has long since been replaced by automatic digital switching exchanges.

The entire SS7 is built on the foundation of this MTP, which consists of xystra sublayers as shown in the figure below. Mobility management This maintains information about the location of the subscriber. Transcoder In the case of the Air Interface, the media carrying the traffic is a radio systraa, but, as we saw in the sstra of a PSTN originated call, the traffic signal is also carried through fixed networks. From the call establishment point of view, the MS must have a connection through these two interfaces before a call can be established.

Fault management provides the network operator with information about the current status of alarm events and maintains a history database of alarms. Referring to the interfaces, the more complicated the interfaces in use, the more intelligence is required between the interfaces in order to implement all the functions required.

Data services It becomes necessary to characterise the bearer specifying the data rates and type of modem to be used. There are two reasons for performing a handover: The result of the analysis is the routing information required for finding the mobile network Public Land Mobile Network, PLMN in which the called subscriber has made his subscription. Furthermore, rules for the general management of the network are to be defined. Furthermore, the common and dedicated channels are grouped in different multiframes.

Let us make a simplified exercise to illustrate the situation. shstra

Mobile originated, mobile terminated and cell broadcast The mobile station makes a request for a channel to establish the connection. The HLR analyses the message. There are four different types of handover and the best way to analyse them is to follow the subscriber as he moves: A favourable cost structure is of major importance for any operator in a competitive marketplace.


This means that we must direct the call to it by using the following procedure: The channel combination informs the mobile station about the mapping method used in the particular cell.

Various factors that affect the demand for network services must also be considered. After listening to your answer, she would try to connect you to the person you wanted to talk with.

GSM-Systra – [PDF Document]

The answer is no. Initiation of the paging process for a mobile station is done by: A non-transparent service employs re-transmission in sstra of errors whereas a transparent service does not employ it. Each cell is identified by an identification number called Cell Global Identity CGIwhich comprises the following elements: Which of the following is not truly an open interface? Which of the following is not a need for SS7 signalling?

Speech, Emergency T12 Emergency calls are possible calls automatically.


The normal security procedures apply to all such calls, except in the case of emergency calls that are processed regardless of possible security violations up to the point that emergency calls can be made with a normal GSM mobile equipment that is not equipped with a SIM card.

Nowadays, GSM specifications define two truly open interfaces. A transcoder used in conjunction with a submultiplexer makes it possible to multiplex traffic channels from three PCM lines, thereby reducing transmission costs. If the time slots of the TDMA frame represent the physical channels, what about the contents? The transcoder is responsible for decreasing towards the MS respectively increasing towards the MSC the data rate for speech only never for data or signalling according to the transmission restrictions on the Air Interface.

All the various tasks of the exchange are distributed to different functional units, which have a CPU of their own.