Laborem exercens. Enciclica. [GIOVANNI PAOLO II -] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Bologna, EDB, , fascicolo in – 16mo, punto. Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Format: Book; 32 p. ; 21 cm. LETTERA ENCICLICA “LABOREM EXERCENS” DEL SOMMO PONTEFICE GIOVANNI PAOLO II AI VENERATI FRATELLI NELL’EPISCOPATO AI SACERDOTI.
|Published (Last):||5 October 2009|
|PDF File Size:||19.58 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||14.21 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
It is a fact that in many societies women work in nearly every sector of life. When we have to consider the moral rights, corresponding to this obligation, of every person with regard to work, we must always keep before our eyes the whole vast range of points of reference in which the labour of every working subject is manifested.
The concept of indirect employer includes both persons and institutions of various kinds, and also collective labour contracts and the principles of conduct which are laid down by these persons and institutions and which determine the whole socioeconomic system or are its result.
A labour system can be right, in the sense of being in conformity with the very essence of the issue, and in the sense of being intrinsically true and also morally legitimate, if in its very basis it overcomes the opposition between labour and capital through an effort at being shaped in accordance with the principle put forward above: This can be true of certain categories or groups of the working ” intelligentsia”, especially when ever wider access to education and an ever increasing number of people with degrees or diplomas in the fields of their cultural preparation are accompanied by a drop in demand for their labour.
Hence, in every case, a just wage is the concrete means of verifying the justice of the whole socioeconomic system and, in any case, of checking that it is functioning justly. Just efforts to secure the rights of workers who are united by the same profession should always take into account the limitations imposed by the general economic situation of the country.
All that has been said above on the subject of the indirect employer is aimed at defining these relationships more exactly, by showing the many forms of conditioning within which these relationships are indirectly formed. It is clear that the term “the earth” of which the biblical text speaks is to be understood in the flrst place as that fragment of the visible universe that man inhabits.
When man works, using all the means of production, he also wishes the fruit of this work to be used by himself and others, and he wishes to be able to take laborm in the very work process exdrcens a sharer in responsibility and creativity at the workbench to labotem he applies himself. Land which could be cultivated is left abandoned by the owners. In fact, the family is simultaneously a community made possible by work and the first school of work, within the home, for every person.
We are celebrating the ninetieth anniversary of the Encyclical Rerum Novarum on the eve of new developments in technological, economic and political conditions which, according to many experts, will influence the world of work and production no less than the industrial revolution of the last century.
La Enciclica Laborem exercens y America Latina | National Library of Australia
They must let themselves be guided by an exact diagnosis of the complex situations and of the influence exercised by natural, historical, civil and other such circumstances. It appears that the International Labour Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other bodies too have fresh contributions to offer on this point in particular.
Retrieved 24 Dec In this context it should be emphasized that, on a more general level, the whole labour process must be organized and adapted in such a way as to respect the requirements of the person and his or her forms of life, above all life in the home, taking into account the individual’s age and sex. Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.
Catalog Record: Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) | Hathi Trust Digital Library
Materialism subordinates people to property; while economism regards the value of human labour only according to its economic purpose. See what’s been added to the collection in the current 1 2 3 4 5 6 weeks months years.
It is certainly true that work, as a human issue, is at the very centre of the “social question” to which, for almost a hundred years, since the laboerm of the above-mentioned Encyclical, the Church’s teaching and the many exercen connected with her apostolic mission have been especially directed. The Church finds in the very first pages ofthe Book of Genesis the source of her conviction that work is a fundamental dimension of human existence on earth.
However, it is also a fact that, in some instances, technology can cease to be man’s ally and become almost his enemy, as when the mechanization of work “supplants” him, taking away all personal satisfaction and the incentive to creativity and responsibility, when it deprives many workers of their previous employment, or when, through exalting the machine, it reduces man to the status of its slave.
Such a system of mutual dependence is in itself normal. This fact is certainly not without difficulties of various kinds. While it is true that man eats the bread produced by the work of his hands 5 – and this means not only the daily bread by which his body keeps alive but also the bread of science and progress, civilization and culture – it is also a perennial truth that he eats this bread by “the sweat of his face” 6that is to say, not only by personal effort and toil but also in the midst of many tensions, conflicts and crises, which, in relationship with the reality of work, disturb the life of individual societies and also of all humanity.
Thus the real conflict between labour and capital was transformed into a systematic class struggle, conducted not only by ideological means but also and chiefly by political means.
In the modern period, from the beginning of the industrial age, the Christian truth about work had to oppose the various trends of materialistic and economistic thought. Octogesima adveniens Populorum progressio.
Laborem exercens – Wikipedia
If it is true that capital, as the whole of the means of production, is at the same time the product of the work of generations, it is equally true that capital is being unceasingly created through the work done with the help of all these means of production, and these means can be seen as a great workbench at which the present generation of workers is working day after day.
Obviously we are dealing here with different kinds of work, not only so-called manual labour but also the many forms of intellectual work, including white-collar work and management. However, it is common knowledge that in the present system of economic relations in the world there are numerous links between individual States, links that find expression, for instance, in the import and export process, that is to say, in the mutual exchange of economic goods, whether raw materials, semimanufactured goods, or finished industrial products.
If this is not done, incalculable damage is inevitably done throughout the economic process, not only economic damage but first and foremost damage to man. In working, man also “enters into the labour of others” It means all the resources that the earth and indirectly the visible world contains and which, through the conscious activity of man, can be discovered and used for his ends.
In the final analysis this overall concern weighs on the shoulders of the State, but it cannot mean onesided centralization by the public authorities. Industry in its turn will always consist in linking the earth’s riches-whether nature’s living resources, or the products of agriculture, or the mineral or chemical resources-with man’s work, whether physical or intellectual.
As a person, man is therefore the subject of work. Work is, as has been said, an obligation, that is to say, a duty, on the part of man.
Historically speaking, this, taken as a whole, enciclida caused great changes in civilization, from the beginning of the “industrial era” to the successive phases of development through new technologies, such as the electronics and the microprocessor technology in recent years.
He takes all these things over by making them his workbench. The Marxist programme, based on the philosophy of Marx and Engels, sees in class struggle the only way to eliminate class injustices in society and to eliminate the classes themselves. The concept of indirect employer includes both persons and institutions of various enciclicq, and also collective labour contracts and the principles of conduct which are laid down by these persons and institutions and which determine the whole socioeconomic system or are its result Having laborwm abandon these tasks in order to take up paid work outside the home is wrong from the point of view of the good of society and of the family when it contradicts or hinders these enciclics goals of the mission of a mother This is an age-old phenomenon which nevertheless continues to be repeated and is still today very widespread as a result of the complexities of modern life.
It is enciclkca that the question of just legislation enters into the context of the present considerations, especially from the point of view of these rights. Can I borrow this item? The reason is that the Church-and it is worthwhile stating it at this point-believes in man: The progress in enciclicca must be made through man and for man and it must produce its fruit in labore.
The gap between most of the richest countries and the poorest ones is not diminishing or being stabilized but is increasing more and more, to the detriment, obviously, of the poor countries. Therefore, while the position of “rigid” capitalism must undergo continual revision, in order to be reformed from the point of view of human rights, both human rights in the widest sense and those linked with man’s work, it must be stated that, from the same point of view, these many deeply desired reforms cannot be achieved by an a priori elimination of private ownership of the means of production.
They will be discussed later.