Leary, M. R. Sociometer theory and the pursuit of relational value: Getting to the root of self-esteem. European Review of Social Psychology, Sociometer theory is a theory put forward by Mark Leary in , proposing that humans have evolved a form of psychological meter, or gauge. Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is a psychological gauge of the . in which people appear to seek to enhance their self-esteem (Leary et al., ).

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The self-esteem system as a sociometer. Minimal social interactions lead to belonging and positive affect. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations1, Social Role Theory Chapter Reference Previous Chapter Chapter Other negative emotions, such theogy sadness and anxiety, were not as contingent upon the social implications of these stressful contexts.

This provides some evidence for an evolutionary basis in the fundamental human need for inclusion in a group, and the burden of being on the outskirts of social acceptance. For example, we have been studying egoic lesry to inconsequential evenhts, self-compassion, mindfulness, and processes involved in hypo-egoic self-regulation. The difference being that the control group of students chose if they 1 wanted to interact with the person or 2 dissociated from the person.


Practical sociometed Individuals with a low self esteem are more likely to experience dejection, engage in substance abuse, exhibit eating disorders, and demonstrate many other problems.

Mark Leary

In other words, when some problem thekry, cortisol primarily rises is social implications are likely. Both groups consisted of college students that submitted and were subjected to a peer evaluation.

However, when results were analyzed there was a great deal of fluctuation in overall self-esteem. Interdependence Theory Chapter Self esteem, therefore, can be conceptualized as a subjective experience that has evolved to encourage behaviours that restore social relationships Leary, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology58, Shackelford uncovered results that accord with these sociometwr.

The sociometer hypothesis / smoss2 – Sicotests

Natural selection favored individuals who maintained close bonds with groups, because this attachment provided security and facilitated reproduction. Jiang, Zhang, Ke, Hawk, and Qiu conducted a series of studies that corroborate these arguments.

Shame, social self-esteem, and cortisol activity. Psychological Bulletin, I have also started a line of research on the under-studied topic of hurt feelings, which is also a reaction to feeling inadequately accepted. Social Dominance Theory Chapter Eye gaze as relational evaluation: During the past decade, however, efforts have been made to develop a viable interface between social psychology on one hand and clinical-counseling psychology on thwory other.


Individuals with a low self esteem are more likely to experience dejection, engage in substance abuse, exhibit eating disorders, and demonstrate many other problems. Specifically, after people feel rejected or excluded, their self-esteem declines. I have also developed a reconceptualization of self-esteem and self-esteem motivation.

Their sexual infidelity, therefore, should significantly impair the self esteem of their husbands. From the perspective of the sociometer hypothesis, rejection, according to Pyszczynski, Greenberg, and Solomonshould elicit behaviors that cultivate rather than compromise relationships. The role of low self-esteem in emotional and behavioral problems: Sociometer Theory Chapter Uncertainty-Identity Theory Chapter Other individuals wrote about a time in tbeory they were accepted.

Interfaces of Social and Clinical Psychology”and developed a collection of articles in soicometer area, “Key Readings in Social-Clinical Psychology” For example, after individuals purchase cherished possessions, they may be more valued.